Особливості соціальної роботи з людьми з порушенням слуху: досвід України і Литви. /Features of Social Work with People with Hearing Impairment: the Experience of Ukraine and Lithuania

Іванова, Ірина; Ушеренко, Сергій, 2017.

Особливості соціальної роботи з людьми з порушенням слуху: досвід України і Литви.

Social and Human Sciences. Polish-Ukrainian scientific journal, 04 (16).


Features of Social Work with People with Hearing Impairment: the Experience of Ukraine and Lithuania


Ivanova, Iryna,

PhD in Education,

University «Ukraine», (Ukraine, Kyiv),

Department of Social Work and Pedagogy,


irboriv@gmail.com ;

Usherenko, Serhii,

Master of Social Work,

Schaulay University (Lithuania),

Faculty of Education Sciences and Social Welfare,





The article highlights the results of empirical research to identify characteristics of social work with people with hearing in Ukraine and Lithuania. Methodology of research are: theory of life scenario, personality-oriented concept and philosophy of positivism. Analyzes social problems hearing impaired, defined possibilities for social organizations to provide social work in an open and integrated social environment.

The main social problems of people with hearing impairment include: information vacuum and restrictions in access to information, the lack of the necessary affordable technical support with high-quality hearing aids and Internet communication systems, and limited employment opportunities in the open labor market.

A comparative analysis of social work with people with hearing impairment in Ukraine and Lithuania revealed that the system of the Sign Language Interpreters Center, access to social services, employment conditions is better developed in the Republic of Lithuania.

Based on the results of the study suggested a model of social work with people with hearing in an open society.

Keywords: people with hearing impairment, integration, social services, social work model.



Особливості соціальної роботи з людьми з порушенням слуху: досвід України і Литви


УДК 37.013.42


Іванова, Ірина,

кандидат педагогічних наук, доцент,

Університет «Україна» (Київ, Україна),

кафедра соціальної роботи та педагогіки,



Ушеренко, Сергій,

магістр соціальної роботи,  

Шауляйський університет (Шяуляй,Литва),

факультет педагогічних наук і соціального забезпечення,




У статті висвітлюються результати проведеного емпіричного дослідження щодо виявлення особливостей соціальної роботи з людьми з порушенням слуху в Україні і Литві. Методологією наукового дослідження є: теорія життєвого сценарію, особистісно-орієнтована концепція і філософія позитивізму. Аналізуються соціальні проблеми людей з порушенням слуху, визначаються можливості організацій соціальної сфери щодо забезпечення соціальної роботи у відкритому та інтегрованому соціальному середовищі.

До основних соціальних проблем людей з порушенням слуху відносяться: інформаційний вакуум і обмеження в доступі до отримання інформації, відсутність необхідного доступного технічного забезпечення слуховими апаратами високої якості і системами Інтернет-зв’язку,  обмежені можливості працевлаштування на відкритому  ринку праці.

Порівняльний аналіз соціальної роботи з людьми з порушенням слуху в Україні і Литві виявив, що у Литовській республіці краще розвиненою є система Центрів перекладачів жестової мови, доступ до послуг соціальних служб, умови працевлаштування.

На основі результатів дослідження пропонується модель соціальної роботи з людьми з порушенням слуху в умовах відкритого суспільства.

Ключові слова: люди з порушенням слуху, інтеграція, соціальні служби, модель соціальної роботи.



Formulation of the problem: According to statistics, as of 2012 in Ukraine at least 0.1 percent of children and about 1 percent of adults have complete hearing loss. And about 7-9 percent of the population - partial deafness. This is the disappointing statistics, according to doctors. Many reasons can cause this disease in children, including birth injuries and inherited diseases. For a child who has already begun to lose hearing, the only way - using a hearing aid. This is what enables it to develop language function and mental ability, fully trained, without limitation communicate with their peers and surroundings.


State study. A new chapter in the study of the features of the primary and secondary defect in children with hearing difficulties was revealed by the outstanding Ukrainian scientist Lev Vygotsky [3] in the theory of social compensation. The problem of life of people with hearing losses is investigated in the context of defectology in Ukrainian science (Крет Я. В., Байкіна Н. Г., Михайлова О. Ю., and others), in a special education (Ляхова І. М.,  etc.), in a special psychology (Роюк С. Є. ; Богданова Т. Г. ). The most famous foreign scholars are: Волкова К. А., Казанская В. Л., Денисова О. А.


Therewith an analysis of scientific literature and our observation suggest that the problem which requires the attention is a social work in an integrated, inclusive environment with people with disabilities to communicate, who have hearing difficulties. That`s why the purpose of the article is to highlight the research results of features of social work with people with hearing impairments in Ukraine and abroad (for example, Lithuania).


Presenting main material. The main social problems of people with hearing impairments are: an information vacuum and restrictions on access to the information, which should be made available to them by using imaging (titration, mute speech translation, support of the audio ad with text messaging). Also, it can be added to these problems a lack of technical provision with earphones of high quality to the hard-of-hearing and lack of ensuring of all persons with hearing impairments of available Internet communication systems (Skype, ooVoo, etc.), as well as discrimination against people with hearing impairments in the labor market.


Diseases which cause a decrease or loss of hearing are one of the most serious health and social problems. Since the acoustic analyzer is one of the most informative in the perception of the world, along with the visual analyzer, a decrease in auditory function, not to mention her loss, significantly worsens the quality of life, in violation of a person's position in society, limits in the choice of a profession, and often leads to exclusion.


Hearing impairments in children retard the development of speech and cognitive skills prevent successful learning in school. Hearing loss often prevents adults from obtaining work, its implementation and eventually prevents them from holding out in the workplace. At the same time funding for special education and, in the future, lack of employment because of hearing impairments can create a burden for the economy.


The research methodology is the theory of life scenario, personality-oriented concept and philosophy of positivism.


The theory of life scenario is presented in the theoretical part of the study in the content of the analysis features of the life scripts of the hearing impaired and characteristics of social problems and needs of people with hearing impairments. Firstly emerged in the framework of transactional analysis, “life script” refers to the unconscious life plan of a man as an implicitly existing purpose for the personal life. According to Eric Berne, life scenario is a some kind of unconscious structure, program of progressive development that manages the human life and determines the behavior in important aspects of life. [2] The life scenario of the individual in our research is studied from the point of view of the relationship of various lifestyle factors, certain “Social predetermination” of human life and disability, creation of opportunities to improve and enhance the identity of their life meaning, plans and strategies within the social scenario with the help of social work.


The personality-based approach is based on the “non-prescriptive” approaches by Carl Rogers - unconditional acceptance of another person's identity and unconditional respect for that person and faith in the possibilities of the clients to make positive changes in their lives, in spite of their disabilities [7]. This model is considered in the forms and methods of social work and technological aspect of social work with people with hearing impairments.


The philosophy of positivism is the basis for the empirical studies of the technological aspects of social work with people with hearing impairments. In compliance with post-positivism theory (К. Поппер, І. Лакатос, Т. Кун, П. Файерабенд) the subjects of the study are not the separate statements, but the science, as a complete dynamic system that evolves because scientific knowledge is holistic in nature, it can not be broken down into individual statements or independent of each other levels: empirical and theoretical.


After analyzing theoretical views on the issues of students’ education with hearing impairment, we can say that in Ukraine, in contrast to international experience, both at the state level and at the level of civil society organizations and society as a whole, to the problems of people with hearing impairment is given little attention.


So, for example, today in Ukraine is quite popular system of resident educational institutions, in which children, in addition to a complete or partial lack of communication with hearing people, also do not get the proper development of speech and, as a consequence, in the future have a delay in mental and psychological development, can not properly express their thoughts, and for this reason can not receive quality education and get a qualified, well-paid job.


By comparison, in the Republic of Lithuania, the system of education is better established, the state aid and social protection of people with hearing impairment is organized at a higher level.


Nevertheless, we want to note that in both countries, it is necessary to pay more attention to the inclusion of people with hearing impairment in the community. In particular, emphasis should be placed on changing the attitudes of people hearing to people with hearing impairment, so they could become productive members of society.


Also, we would like to add that after analyzing the theoretical approaches to the organization of life scenario for people with hearing impairment in different conditions, we can conclude that including people with impaired hearing, especially from childhood into society by involving children in inclusive education, it is possible to achieve the leaving of medical model, life scenario, as a result, to achieve positive social change, and eventually  to allow people with hearing impairment, like people with other disabilities to slough off  invalid label.


Regarding empirical research, we can say that it took place in two stages:

1 stage - conducting of questionnaire in Ukraine on the basis of University “Ukraine”, Kiev College of Light Industry and  Kiev Higher Vocational School of Water Transport.

Stage 2 –interview conducting in the Republic of Lithuania on the basis of Siauliai center for children with hearing impairment and Siauliai center of sign language interpreters.


In order to study in Ukraine, 70 people with hearing loss at the age from 15 to 42 years old were interviewed - students of University “Ukraine”, Kiev College of Light Industry and Kiev Higher Vocational School of Water Transport and their parents. 37% of respondents were male and 63% - women.


The questionnaire consisted of 18 questions, of which, 3 questions were open, and, respectively, 15 - closed, and 7 of which were half-closed. The questionnaire questions were aimed at clarifying the socio-demographic information (gender, age, place of the healing, financial situation, the level of medical support), information regarding the institutions with which they cooperate, respondents with hearing impairment, concerning the major problems that people with hearing impairment faced, questions about features of employment, questions regarding human rights and social services for people with hearing impairment, as well as their awareness about their relationship to social work.


During the study in the Republic of Lithuania was held focused interview with six people: a separate interview with the director of Siauliai sign language interpreters’ center and collective interview with the director and teachers of Siauliai center for children with hearing impairment.


Interview blank was based on questions used in the questionnaire. The need to create the interview was due to the fact that, unfortunately in Siauliai was present a relatively small number of people with hearing impairment, and by European standards it was not enough to carry out the survey.


Questionnaire and interview concerned the system of social work with young people with hearing impairment, problems with which the representatives of this category face in everyday life, institutions which work with them, especially the employment and requesting of deaf people on the labor market.


Goal of research: To identify and to analyze the main problems and needs of people with hearing impairment.


During the study, it was used such empirical methods like questionnaire of students with hearing impairments in order to identify their main problems and needs; interview with professionals who works directly with young people with hearing impairment, collection, processing, analysis and interpretation of the survey results  to confirm the hypothesis; monitoring the experimental group during the whole duration of the experimental work.


Ukrainian study results. 

Analyzing the question of contacting people with hearing impairments with the organizations, it can be concluded that, despite a significant number of listed companies, the respondents are reluctant to go on contact with the organizations of the state, public and private sector.


Regarding the issue, with which organizations you are in contact, the majority, 46% said that they keep in touch with the organization UTOG, 37% - said that they are not in contact with any organization, 6% are in contact with honest organizations, 3% - with philanthropy organization “Salvation Army”, 3% - with international organizations  and  philanthropy fond, which, unfortunately, did not indicate as 3% - said that they are in contact with the local village council, student government and sports and art schools. (Diagram A) (Table 1)


The list of organizations with which respondents from Ukraine have a contact

Table 1 

Non-governmental organization UTOG                                                                 46%

Non-governmental organization “Salvation Army”                                                 3%

Philanthropy organization                                                                                   3%

Honest organization                                                                                           6%

International fond                                                                                              3%

Villagecouncil                                                                                                     3%

Sport, art school                                                                                                 3%

Studentgovernment                                                                                            3%

Don’t contact with none                                                                                      37%


The received data may indicate several facts: the reluctance of young people to make contact with organizations, or a low level of awareness about the activities of the organizations, and also may be indicative of an insufficient number of organizations that provide services for people with hearing impairment.


To determine the level of social protection, identifying the main problems and features of adverse communication and socialization of people with hearing impairment in Ukraine, the question pool was created.


To confirm the theoretical information, was carried out an analysis of the main problems of people with hearing impairment in the modern society of Ukraine [1-8].

When asked what the main problems of people with hearing impairment are in today's society, the vast majority of 77%, noted the main problem - the problem of employment, 71% - problems in communication, 43% - the limitations in obtaining social services and 40% - a low level of self-realization. (Diagram B) (Table 2)


The main problems of people with hearing impairment in Ukraine

Table 2 

Problems in communication                                                                                 71%

Limitations in obtaining social services                                                                 43%

A  low level of employment                                                                                 77%

A low level of self-realization                                                                               40%


The data indicate that all of these kinds of questions are relevant to the respondents and there is a need to pay them special attention. Also, a high level of employment problems and problems in communicating, talking about their relevance and that the youth is ready to actively keep in touch and to be active members of society, to be useful, that is also important.


Solving these problems should lead to positive changes and will allow to move away from narrowly focused life scenario of people with hearing impairment.

To identify opportunities for communication of people with hearing impairment in the society was put a question: “The main problems in communicating with hearing people”.


By analyzing the main problems in communicating with hearing people, the majority, 46% chose the communication problems, 23% - lack of understanding and, 11% - responded that there are no problems, 9% - humiliation from the side of surrounding and 6% - various features of psychology, 28% - did not respond. (Diagram C) (Table 3)


The main problems in communicating with hearing people

Table 3

Communication problems                                                                                     46%

Lack of understanding and support                                                                        23%

Various features of psychology                                                                              6%

Humiliation from the side of surrounding                                                                9%

There are no problems                                                                                         11%

Did not respond                                                                                                  29%


Data obtained in the analysis of this question, which, by the way, is open, show that: in the first place, confirmed the main problem is the lack of communication of people with hearing impairment to hearing, and, secondly, it is pleasant that relatively low results are according the problem of the humiliation from the side of hearing people, as well as the fact that the answer option, indicating that there is no problem in communicating with hearing people, and it takes the last place.


Also, to determine the level of protection of the rights of people with hearing impairment was embedded in the question form: "In which situations did you face infringement of your rights?"


In analyzing this question, it was found that the majority, 74%, indicated a major violation of human rights - access to information, 57% marked the  employment opportunities, 40% gave to humiliation from others and neglect by others and 37% marked access to free services.

Results of question analysis confirm studied above theoretical assumptions and show that the greatest challenges for people with hearing impairment are the challenges of the information vacuum and employment problems, that are again a consequence of the features of life scenario in which people live with a hearing impairment, and, correspondingly require changes to the aforementioned positive developments.


When asked what needs do you have in obtaining social services, 66% chose the needs of employment, 49% - the need of rehabilitation facilities, 43% - to the needs of self-realization, 40% - the need for education, 37% - psychological needs and legal aid. (Diagram D) (Table 4)


The needs of people with hearing impairment in Ukraine in obtaining social services

Table 4

Needs in rehabilitation facilities                                                                       49%

Needs in employment                                                                                     66%

Needs in education                                                                                         40%

Needs in self-realization                                                                                  43%

Needs in psychological aid                                                                               37%

Needs in law aid                                                                                             37%


The findings indicate a low level of social security of the state and public organizations, and point to the need of improving these questions.


Results of the study in the Republic of Lithuania.

According to a study in the Republic of Lithuania, with deaf people cooperate 5 regional centers of sign language interpreters, Centers for children with hearing impairment, social services, Lithuanian Association of Hard of Hearing, Deaf Society of Lithuania, the Lithuanian National Society of  Deaf athletes and others.


According to all respondents, the main problems of people with hearing impairment in the modern Lithuanian society are an information vacuum and the problem of employment. Today, unfortunately, not all TV channels of the Republic of Lithuania, as well as in Ukraine, escort broadcasting time with titration and translation into sign language.


On the issue of employment in the Republic of Lithuania, unfortunately, as in Ukraine, people with hearing  impairment are unsolicited on the labor market, due to the impossibility of a full-fledged communication with hearing people, employers incompetence in questions of work features of people with hearing impairment, and also because of restrictions for medical reasons. Deaf and hearing impaired people work mainly as the office workers (builders, seamstresses, cashiers).


Quite interesting is the operation system of sign language interpreter’s centers. Anyone with a hearing impairment can ask for help in providing translation,  to be accompanied by an interpreter in various instances (clinic, legal advice, police, etc.) to assist in the communication for solving various issues, as well as, to the center can apply different organizations with advertising proposals of their services or sign language’s  products. In this case, all interpreters must have special higher education that they receive at the Academy in Vilnius.


On education of deaf and children with hearing impairment, we learned that every child has the opportunity to acquire education at all levels, from kindergarten at the centers for children with hearing impairment, where children with any degree of hearing impairment studying, and ending with higher education institutions in any of which everyone can get an education, just by contacting Translation center to get a help in translation. Regarding secondary education, all children receive it in a center for children with hearing impairment (except one school for deaf children in Vilnius), but in case the hearing of the child is enough saved, having special training he or she can go to public school. Concerning the rights of people with hearing impairment, according to the respondents’ words, we can say that they are kept. Such people are socially protected, everyone has access to education and all the services, not enough free but (you have to ask for help on certain issues to the translators of sign language interpreters’ center), also, as we said, some problems with employment are noticed.


Regarding the characteristics of social work with people with hearing impairment in the Republic of Lithuania, everyone has access to all the centers that provide social services, and in the Lithuanian Deaf Society, where they can also get advice, translation assistance, and also have the opportunity to take part in various cultural circles.


Summing up the results of empirical research, we can conclude that:

1. People with hearing impairment in Ukraine and the Republic of Lithuania have similar problems and needs, at least, considering the most important of them.

2. In the Republic of Lithuania is better developed system of sign language translation’s centers, allowing easy access of youth with hearing impairment to higher education.

3. Unfortunately, according to the respondents and observations data, significant problem is the problem of literacy of people with hearing impairment, of course, it is due to the specific perception of deaf and hearing impaired, however, by analyzing the level of grammatical knowledge of different generations, there is a deterioration in the level of writing, at least, in Ukraine, which suggests the need to give to this issue more attention.

4. In the Republic of Lithuania, every person, including the hearing-impaired, has access to all social services throughout their lives. In Ukraine, according to studies and surveys, unfortunately, not all social services help people with hearing impairment due to lack of necessary specialists.

5. It is an acute problem of employment of people with hearing impairment, especially in Ukraine. Unfortunately, not all employers agree to hire people with these health problems, not focusing on the peculiarities of working with them. Paying attention to the economic and social characteristics of the country, we can say that this problem is unprofitable for the most deaf and hearing impaired, as well as for employers.


In sum, we can say that in Ukraine, the system of social work with people with hearing impairment does provide the needs of deaf and hard hearing people, but only at a minimal level, and requires significant improvement. The situation in Lithuania has more better performance, but also requires some little modification.

Based on the study data, we propose to introduce in the social work model of social work with people with hearing impairment in the conditions of an open society:


Medical features of inclusion of people with hearing impairment

1. Ensuring timely detection of hearing problems (hearing screening for all babies). In case of disorder, it is necessary to make a plan of work with the child, depending on the degree of hearing loss. A similar procedure should take place with a person who as a result of injuries received form of disability that is acquired with hearing impairment. These procedures must be carried out with an aim not only to detect problems with hearing and providing to a person the status of disabled, but also to prevent the deterioration of hearing levels, like hearing-impaired people, and hearing people who  are or can be  in the risk group (pensioners, people who work at noisy factories or live in noisy environments, and others). To do this, otolaryngologists and Audiologists must pick up the necessary rehabilitation equipment (hearing aids, cochlear implants) and the provisions available to everyone, prescribing them in the programs of individual rehabilitation. Such inspections should be appointed by specialists and to be regular, depending on the degree of hearing impairment;

2. Free access to medical and rehabilitation measures and facilities.

3. Ensure equal access of people with hearing impairment to health services (introduction in the staff of establishment a sign language interpreter, by the help of modern technologies to provide a touch of medical cabinets with sign language interpreters’ centers).


Inclusion features in the educational environment

1. Seminars and training sessions for parents of all age’s children on the topic: “The need of inclusive education”;

2. Introduction of pre-school children with social phenomena of “disability”, “inclusion” and “integration”;

3. Creation of separate groups for children with hearing impairment at ordinary kindergartens where hearing children are studying and ensuring them with active communication during leisure time;

4. Carrying out joint activities (matinees) for children with hearing impairment and hearing children;

5. Creation and distribution of elective classes to study sign language at kindergartens and inclusive schools, where children with hearing problems are studying, in order to promote sign language and children approach;

6. Support providing of sign language interpreter at all stages of education;

7. Conduct training sessions for friendship creating and active communication in inclusive classrooms;

8. Collaboration ensuring of deaf children and children with hearing impairment during the extracurricular activities;

9. Promotion of tolerance and altruism among children of all ages;

10. Provision of proper career guidance work for children with hearing impairment (a help in finding not just a profession of interest to the child, but also taking account of the necessary restrictions, the joint selection of the profession in which the children will be able to realize themselves);

11. The active participation of social workers and psychologists in all stages of inclusion and integration;

12. Active cooperation of social workers of educational institutions with organizations that are involved in work with deaf and hearing- impaired people.


Inclusion features in a professional environment

1. Active positioning of organization as an employer for people with disabilities;

2. Active involvement of hearing employees to communicate with colleagues with hearing impairments;

3. Ensuring the team spirit in the organization and the importance of each employee.


Also, it is important to note that in the application of student-centered approach, a person with hearing impairment develops quiet confidence in the ability to be responsible for their lives, the ability to make the right choice, self-actualization, and non-judgmental attitude to oneself, which in turn, shows the ability of student-orientation approach to implement positive changes in the social, educational and labor inclusion.




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Обновлен 16 дек 2017. Создан 21 ноя 2017

автор: Іванова Ірина, завідувач кафедри соціальної роботи і педагогіки Університету "Україна", Ушеренко Сергій, магістр соціальної роботи, Шяуляйський університет (Литва)

видання: Social and Human Sciences. Polish-Ukrainian scientific journal, 04 (16)., час видання: 2017